Influence of Gender Threats and Overcoming Behavior on the Satisfaction of Women Entrepreneurs
Keywords:Threats, Overcoming Behavior, Women Entrepreneurs, Gender, Satisfaction in Family and Work.
Objective: To make a theoretical reflection on the influences of gender threats and overcoming behaviors on the satisfaction in work and family of women entrepreneurs.
Method: The article is a theoretical essay based on the Brazilian and international literature aiming the development of a model which is useful to elaborate a scale regarding threats to women’s entrepreneurial activities.
Originality / Relevance: The approached constructs come from an empirical research which offered a typology of threats faced by woman entrepreneurs and their overcoming behaviors. The model proposed for the development of a scale regarding threats to women’s entrepreneurial activities is new and responds to important research needs. This characterizes the relevance and originality of the article and its contributions.
Results: The article made possible an innovative and necessary theoretical approach about the interactions among relevant constructs. It was possible to identify that the threats and the overcoming behavior predict the satisfaction level for women entrepreneurs. The results offer a model to compose a research agenda about these subjects which is necessary to understand in detail the women entrepreneurship behavior.
Theoretical / methodological contributions: The article offers new contributions reflecting: i) the economic development generated by women and the discrimination they suffer in the entrepreneurship context; ii) the relevance of their participation in the social scenario and the prejudice they still suffer; iii) the role of women’s businesses and the diverse difficulties they live, also in the familiar context; iv) different perspectives on men and women in entrepreneurship; v) the lack of studies and empirical data about threats suffered by women entrepreneurs considering their (dis)satisfaction in businesses.
Abelha, D. M., Carneiro, P. C. C., & Cavazotte, F. S. C. N. (2018). Liderança Transformacional e Satisfação no Trabalho: Avaliando a Influência de Fatores do Contexto Organizacional e Características Individuais. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 20(4), 516-532.
Achtenhagen, L., & Welter, F. (2003). Female entrepreneurship In Germany: Context, development, and its reflection In German media. New Perspectives on Women Entrepreneurs, 71-100, 2003.
Ahl, H. (2006). Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5), 595-621.
Ahl, H., & Marlow, S. (2012). Exploring the dynamics of gender, feminism and entrepreneurship: advancing debate to escape a dead end. Organization, 19(5), 543-562.
Ali, J., & Shabir, S., (2017) Does gender make a difference in business performance? Evidence from a large enterprise survey data of India. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 32 (Issue: 3), pp.218-233.
Alison, H., Sarah, C., & Pauric, M. (2009). Female entrepreneurial networks and networking activity in technology-based ventures: An exploratory study. International Small Business Journal, 27(2), 193-214.
Allport, G., Clark, K. & Pettigrew, T. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge: Addison-Wesley.
Amanatullah, E. T., & Morris, M. W. (2010). Negotiating gender roles: Gender differences in assertive negotiating are mediated by women’s fear of backlash and attenuated when negotiating on behalf of others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(2), 256–267.
Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. (1995). Emotion In the workplace: A reappraisal. Human Relation, 48 (2), pp. 97-125.
Baines, S., & Wheelock, J. (1998). Working for each other: Gender, the household and micro-business survival and growth. International Small Business Journal, 17)1, 16-35.
Baron, R. A. (2007). Behavioral and cognitive factors in Entrepreneurship: entrepreneurs as the Active element in new venture creation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, n.1, pp. 167–182.
Baron, R. A. & Shane, S. A. (2007). Empreendedorismo: uma visão do processo. São Paulo: Thomson Learning.
Baron, R. (2008). The role of affect in the entrepreneurial process. Academy of Management Review, 33 (2), pp. 328-340.
Bertolami, M., Artes, R., Gonçalves, P. J., Hashimoto, M., & Lazzarini, S. G. (2018). Sobrevivência de Empresas Nascentes: Influência do Capital Humano, Social, Práticas Gerenciais e Gênero. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 22(3), 311-335.
Boateng, H.; Okoe, A. F.; Mensah, T. D. (2017). The relationship between human resource practices and knowledge sharing in service firms. Business Information Review, 34 (2), 74-80.
Borell, D. A. V., Camfield, C. E. R., & Rodrigues, R. G. (2018). Uma Análise da Relação entre Valores Pessoais e Satisfação com o Trabalho. Revista de Administração da UFSM, 11(5), 1240-1256.
Brinkman, B., Dean, A., Simpson, C., McGinley, M., & Rosén, L. (2015). Bystander Intervention During College Women’s Experiences of Gender Prejudice. Sex Roles, 72(11–12), 485–498. https://di.org/10.1007/s11199-015-0485-x.
Bruce, D. (1999). Do husbands matter? married women entering self-employment. (author abstract). Small Business Economics, 13(4),317.
Camargo, R. A. M. M., Lourenço, M. L., & Ferreira, J. M. (2018). Mulheres Empreendedoras no Brasil: Quais seus Medos? Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 20(2), 178-193.
Cardon, M., Foo, M. -D., Shepherd, D., & Wiklund, J. (2012). Exploring the heart: Entrepreneurial emotion is a hot topic. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 36 (1), pp. 1-10.
Carli, L. L. (1989). Gender differences in interaction style and influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(4), 565–576. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.115.
Carvalho, G. C. (2017) Políticas públicas, gênero e empreendedorismo: uma análise do Programa Nacional Trabalho e Empreendedorismo da Mulher em Pernambuco. Acta Scientiarum. Humam and Social Sciences, Maringá, v. 39, n. 1, p. 11-18, Jan.-Apr.
Ceribeli, H. B., & Mignacca, T. P. (2019). Uma Análise da Influência da Flexibilização do Trabalho sobre a Satisfação do Trabalhador e o Comportamento de Cidadania Organizacional. GESTÃO.Org - Revista Eletrônica de Gestão Organizacional, 17(1), 102-118.
Chin, W. W., & Dibbern, J. (2010). Handbook of Partial Least Squares. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Choi, S. & Rainey, H. G. (2014). Organizational Fairness and Diversity Management in Public Organizations: Does Fairness Matter in Managing Diversity? Review of Public Personnel Administration, 34 (4), 307-331.
Church, M. A., & Truitt, T. (2017). Brazilian Women Entrepreneurs: Exploring Sustainability as a Strategy for Developing Resilient Business Organizations. Small Business Institute® Journal (SBIJ), 13(1), 30–57. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.uindy.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ent&AN=129762805&site=ehost-live
Churchill, G. I. (2005). Marketing Research: Methodological Foundations. 8. ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers.
Cromie, S., University of Ulster, UK, & Birley, S. (1992). Networking by female business owners in Northern Ireland. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(3), 237-251. doi:10.1016/0883-9026(92)90029-Q.
Curhan, J. R., & Overbeck, J. R. (2008). Making a Positive Impression in a Negotiation: Gender Differences in Response to Impression Motivation. Negotiation & Conflict Management Research, 1(2), 179–193. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-4716.2008.00010.x.
De Bruin, A., Brush, C. G., & Welter, F. (2007). Advancing a Framework for Coherent Research on Women's Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneuship: Theory and Practice. v. 31, issue: 3, p.p. 323-339. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6520.2007.00176.x
Dorsch, F., Hacker, H. & Sapf, K.H. (2010). Dicionário de Psicologia. Petrópolis: Vozes.
Fenwick, Tara. (2010). Lady, Inc.: Women learning, negotiating subjectivity in entrepreneurial discourses. International Journal of Lifelong Education. March 01. 162-177. 10.1080/02601370110111718.
Fischer, E. M., Reuber, A. R., & Dyke, L. S. (2006). A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(2), 151-168.
Foo, M. D. (2011). Emotions and entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 35, (2), pp. 375-393.
Gardiner, M., & Tiggemann, M. (1999). Gender differences in leadership style, job stress and mental health in male - and female - dominated industries. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72(3), 301-315.
Gevrek, D., Spencer, M., Hudgins, D., & Chambers, V. (2017) I can’t get no satisfaction. Personnel Review, 46(5), 1019-1043.
Gimenez, F. A. P., Ferreira, J. M., & Ramos, S. R. (2017). Empreendedorismo feminino no Brasil: Gênese e formação de um campo de pesquisa. Revista de Empreendedorismo e Gestão de Pequenas Empresas – REGEPE, 6 (1), pp.4-74.
Giotopoulos, I. Kontolaimou, A., & Tsakanikas, A. (2017). Antecedents of growth-oriented entrepreneurship before and during the Greek economic crisis, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, v. 24 Issue: 3, pp.528-544, https://doi.org/10.1108/JSBED-01-2017-0003
Godwin, L., Stevens, C., & Brenner, N. (2006). Forced to play by the rules? theorizing how mixed-sex founding teams benefit women entrepreneurs in male-dominated contexts. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5), 623-642. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2006.00139.x.
Gomes, A. F., Santos, R. A., Silva, J. S. F., Silva, P. L. O., & Bacelar, A. S. (2018). Satisfação com o Trabalho e Dedicação ao Trabalho: Um Estudo com Empreendedoras no Interior Baiano. Perspectivas em Gestão & Conhecimento, 8(3), 67-89.
Hampton, A., Cooper, S., & Mcgowan, P. (2009). Female entrepreneurial networks and networking activity in technology-based ventures: An exploratory study. International Small Business Journal, 27(2), 193-214. doi:10.1177/0266242608100490.
Harner, M. M. (2011). Mitigating Financial Risk for Small Business Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial Business Law Journal, 6(2), 469–489. Retrieved from https://ezproxy.uindy.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ent&AN=87050016&site=ehost-live.
Hedler, D. L. & Castro, A. L. (2015). Satisfação do Servidor Público no Trabalho: um Estudo de Caso nos Centros de Referência de Assistência Social de Paranavaí. UNOPAR Cient., Ciênc. Juríd. Empres., v. 16, n. 2, p. 192-198, 2015.
Hirigoyen, M.F. (1998). Le harcèlement moral: la violence perverse au quotidien. Paris: Syros.
Hong, A. P. C. I., & Wijst, P. J. (2013). Women in Negotiation: Effects of Gender and Power on Negotiation Behavior. Negotiation & Conflict Management Research, 6(4), 273–284. https://doi.org/10.1111/ncmr.12022.
Hoppock, R. (1935). Job Satisfaction. New York: Harper.
Hughes, K., Jennings, J., Brush, C., Carter, S., & Welter, F. (2012). Extending women's entrepreneurship research in new directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(3), 429-442. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012. 00504.x
Ibarra, H. (1993). Personal networks of women and minorities in management: A conceptual framework. The Academy of Management Review, 18(1),56-87.
Jones, J. (1972). Prejudice and racism. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
Kazanjian, R. K. (1988). Relation of dominant problems to stages of growth in technology-based new ventures. Academy of Management Journal, 31(2), 257–279. https://doi.org/10.2307/256548
Klerk, S., & Verreynne, M. (2017). The networking practices of women managers in an emerging economy setting: Negotiating institutional and social barriers. Human Resource Management Journal, 27(3), 477-501. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12151.
Laukhuf, R. & Malone, T. (2015) Women entrepreneurs need mentors. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 13 (1), pp. 70-86.
Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. American Psychologist, 46(8), 819–834. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.46.8.819
Leão & Nassif, (2018). Apontamentos sobre ameaças: estudo sistemático no campo do empreendedorismo. X Egepe, FGV/SP.
Lewis, P. (2006). The Quest for Invisibility: Female Entrepreneurs and the Masculine Norm of Entrepreneurship. Gender, Work & Organization, 13(5), 453–469. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2006.00317.x.
Lewis, P. (2013). The Search for an Authentic Entrepreneurial Identity: Difference and Professionalism among Women Business Owners. Gender, Work & Organization, 20(3), 252–266. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2011.00568.x.
Lima, C. (2018). Gênero, trabalho e cidadania: função igual, tratamento salarial desigual. Estudos Feministas, 26 (3), pp. 1-20.
Loscocco, K., Monnat, S., Moore, G., & Lauber, K. (2009). Enterprising women: a comparison of women's and men's small business networks. gender and society, 23(3), 388-411. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20676786.
Mambula, C. (2002). Perceptions of SME growth constraints in Nigeria. Journal of Small Business Management, 40 (1), pp. 58-65.
Markussen, S. & Røed, K. (2017). The gender gap in entrepreneurship – The role of peer effects”. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, v. 134, pp. 356-373.
McDonald, S. (2011). What's in the “old boys” network? accessing social capital in gendered and racialized networks. Social Networks, 33(4), 317-330. doi: 10.1016/j.socnet.2011.10.002
McGowan, P., Cooper, S., Durkin, M., & O’Kane, C. (2015). The Influence of Social and Human Capital in Developing Young Women as Entrepreneurial Business Leaders. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(3), 645–661.
McGowan, P., Redeker, C., Cooper, S., & Greenan, K. (2012). Female entrepreneurship and the management of business and domestic roles: Motivations, expectations, and realities. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 24(1-2), 53-72. doi:10.1080/08985626.2012.637351.
McGowan, P., Cooper, S., Durkin, M. & O’Kane, C. (2015). The Influence of social and human capital in developing young women as entrepreneurial business leaders. Journal of Small Business Management, 53 (3), pp. 645-661.
Medeiros, D. M. L. (2014). Motivação e satisfação na função pública: caso dos Açores. Açores, 2014. Dissertação de mestrado, Universidade dos Açores.
Midgley, D. (1981). Toward a theory of the product life cycle: explaining diversity. The Journal of Marketing, 45 (4), pp. 109-115.
Miles, E. W., & Clenney, E. F. (2010). Gender Differences in Negotiation: A Status Characteristics Theory View. Negotiation & Conflict Management Research, 3(2), 130–144. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-4716.2010.00054.x.
Miles, R., & Snow, C. (1987b). The genesis of configuration. Academy of Management Review, 12, pp. 686-701.
Miles, R., Snow, C., Meyer, A., & Coleman, H. (1978). Organizational strategy, structure, and process. Academy of Management Review, 3 (3), pp. 546-562.
Monteiro, R., Freitas, V., & Daniel, F. (2018). Condições de trabalho num universo profissional feminizado. Estudos Feministas, 26 (2), pp. 1-19.
Moore, W., & Tushman, M. (1982). Managing Innovation over the product life cycle. In: Tushman, M., Moore, W. (eds.). Readings In the management of Innovation. Boston, MA: Pitman, 1982. pp. 131-150.
Nassif, V. M. J. (2019). Mulheres transformadoras, empreendedoras e seus negócios. São Paulo: ECO Editorial, 2019. 290 f. ISBN: 978-85-907101-1-0. CDU 658-055.2. https://indd.adobe.com/view/1ef1d628-4ce8-4dcd-9f0e-7fcf00b19267.
Nassif, V. M. J., Borges, C., Hashimoto, M. &, Lima, E. (2018). Comportamentos de superação de mulheres empreendedoras que vivenciam situações de ameaças em seus negócios: um estudo descritivo e exploratório. Repositório FAPESP.
Natividade, D. R. (2009). Empreendedorismo feminino no Brasil: políticas públicas sob análise. Revista de Administração Pública, vol.43 no.1. doi.org/10.1590/S0034-76122009000100011.
Nichter, S., & Goldmark, L. (2009) Small firm growth In developing countries. World Development, 37 (9), pp. 1453-1464.
Nogueira, R. (2018). A evolução da sociedade patriarcal e sua Influência sobre a identidade feminina e a violência de gênero. Revista Jus Navigandi, 23 (5377), pp. 1518-4862.
Ohlott, P., Ruderman, M., & Mccauley, C. (1994). Gender Differences in Managers' Developmental Job Experiences. The Academy of Management Journal, 37 (1), pp. 46-67.
Ozkazanc-Pan, B., & Clark Muntean, S. (2018). Networking towards (in)equality: Women entrepreneurs in technology. Gender, Work & Organization, 25(4), 379-400. doi:10.1111/gwao.12225.
Padovez-Cualheta, L., Borges, C., Camargo, A., & Tavares, L. (2019) "Na entrepreneurial career impacts on job and family satisfaction", RAUSP Management Journal, https:// doi.org/10.1108/RAUSP-09-2018-0081
Podoynitsyna, K., Van Der Bij, H., & Song, M. (2012). The Role of Mixed Emotions in the Risk Perception of Novice and Serial Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, January.
Putnam, L., & Mumby, D. (1993). Organizations, emotion and the myth of rationality”. In: Fineman, S. (ed.). Emotion In organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 36-57.
Ragins, B., & McFarlin, D. (1990). Perceptions of mentor roles in cross-gender mentoring relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37(3), 321-39.
Robson, P., & Obeng, B. (2008). The barriers to growth In Ghana. Small Business Economics, 30 (4), pp. 385-403.
Sappleton, N. (2009). Women non‐traditional entrepreneurs and social capital. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(3), 192-218. doi:10.1108/17566260910990892.
Sims, R., Breen, J., & Ali, S. (2002). Small Business Support: Dealing with the Impediments to Growth. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 10(4), 241. https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218495802000025
Siqueira, M. M. M. (2008). Satisfação no trabalho. In: Siqueira, M. M. M. (Org.). Medidas do comportamento organizacional: ferramentas de diagnostico e de gestão. Porto Alegre: Artmed, p. 265-273.
Siqueira, M. M. M.; Gomide JR., S. (2004). Vínculos do indivíduo com o trabalho e com a organização. In: Zanelu, J. C.; Borges-Andrade, J. E; Bastos, A. V B. (Org.). Psicologia, organizações e trabalho no Brasil. Porto Alegre: Artmed, p. 300-328
Spector, P. E. (1997). Job Satisfaction: application, Assessment, Causes, and Consequences. California: Sage Publications, Inc..
Stead, V. (2017) Belonging and women entrepreneurs: Women’s navigation of gendered assumptions in entrepreneurial practice. International Small Business Journal, 35 (1), pp. 61-77.
Stuhlmacher, A. F., Citera, M., & Willis, T. (2007). Gender differences in virtual negotiation: Theory and research. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 57(5–6), 329–339. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9252-y.
Vermeeren, B., Kuipers, B. & Steijn, B. (2014). Does Leadership Style Make a Difference? Linking HRM, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Performance. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 34 (2), 174 – 195.
Viitala, R.; Tankskanen, J.; Santti, R. (2015). The connection between organizational climate and well-being at work. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 23 (4), 606-620.
Vygotsky, L. (2010). Psicologia pedagógica. Porto Alegre: Artmed.
Wrigley-Asante, C. (2018). Women in ties: Informal social networks among women in cross-border trading in accra, ghana. Gender Issues, 35(3), 202-219. doi:10.1007/s12147-017-9205-x.
Yasuda, T. (2005). Firm Growth, Size, Age and Behavior in Japanese Manufacturing. Small Bus Econ 24,1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-005-7568-y.
Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35 (2), pp.151-175.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1. Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms: the author(s) authorize(s) the publication of the text in the journal;
2. The author(s) ensure(s) that the contribution is original and unpublished and that it is not in the process of evaluation by another journal;
3. The journal is not responsible for the views, ideas and concepts presented in articles, and these are the sole responsibility of the author(s);
4. The publishers reserve the right to make textual adjustments and adapt texts to meet with publication standards.
5. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right to first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Atribuição NãoComercial 4.0 internacional, which allows the work to be shared with recognized authorship and initial publication in this journal.
6. Authors are allowed to assume additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (e.g. publish in institutional repository or as a book chapter), with recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.
7. Authors are allowed and are encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on a personal web page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as this can generate positive effects, as well as increase the impact and citations of the published work (see the effect of Free Access) at http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html• 8. Authors are able to use ORCID is a system of identification for authors. An ORCID identifier is unique to an individual and acts as a persistent digital identifier to ensure that authors (particularly those with relatively common names) can be distinguished and their work properly attributed.